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P. Lazarou, C. Rotinat
CEA LIST, France
Robotic devices for minimally invasive surgery procedures require flexible tools and careful actuation. But most robotic surgery devices are bulky, expensive, and physically draining for surgeons to operate for long periods of time. At the French Atomic and Alternative Energies Commission (CEA LIST), researchers are investigating miniature phase-change actuators that will reduce the strain placed ...
Clemson U, SC, USA
J. Brcka, J. Faguet, E. Lee
Tokyo Electron, TX, USA
Dielectrophoresis (DEP) is a method of patterning cells and particles used in medical, electronics, and energy applications. When an electric field is applied to an array of cells or dielectric particles suspended in a medium, they become polarized, causing movement that reorganizes the particles. This is an efficient way to assemble materials layer by layer at the nanoscale, and is sometimes ...
Martin Beckmann-Kluge & Fabio Ferrero
BAM German Federal Institute for Materials Research & Testing, Berlin, Germany
BAM German Federal Institute for Materials Research & Testing in Berlin promotes industrial development by providing research and consultation on materials technology and chemical engineering. Their recent work has been in analyzing the process by which highly flammable TFE gas is converted into a solid called PTFE (polytetrafluoroethylene), or the non-stick coating commonly known as ...
Aulis Tuominen and Mika Maaspuro
University of Turku
Eindhoven, The Netherlands
Hella Lighting Finland Oy
Helvar Oy Ab
Light-emitting diodes (LEDs) offer many benefits over incandescent lighting, such as long life spans and high luminous efficiency, and they are environmentally friendly. One of the drawbacks, however, is that LEDs need to operate at the lowest possible temperatures and this must be carefully regulated. Researchers at Business and Innovation Development Technology at the University of Turku in ...
Tommi Paananen, David Geibel, Bill Teising, Mårten Almkvist, Jon Brasher, Josh Elder, Bob Elick and Chris Whitten
Consumers of power rely on fairly stable voltages. Transformers contain tap changers which vary the ratio of secondary to primary turns by switching the point at which either the input or output circuits are connected. Changing this ratio enables stepped voltage regulation of the output. As the world moves toward the modernized smart grid, the tap changer’s design must be altered to make it ...
Jean-Louis Gelet and Antoine Gerlaud
Large electrical systems carrying high currents could pose a danger if any of their components, such as fuses and bus bars, fail. In order to increase safety and improve manufacturing, it is necessary to understand the failure mechanisms of those components. One of those components, a bus bar, is made up of a single piece of conducting metal that replaces individual, thick cables when conducting ...
Derek Bassett and Michael Carcasi
Tokyo Electron America
Chip manufacturers have been adhering to Moore’s law, a law stating that the number of transistors that can be economically placed on an integrated circuit doubles every year, since 1965. As the number of transistors increases, however, the process of manufacturing integrated circuit, called photolithography, becomes more difficult. Each device requires approximately 200 cleaning and ...
O. Craciun, and colleagues
When a tree branch touches overhead cables and causes a momentary short circuit, your lights may flicker. A device called a recloser ensures that power to your home is not cut off for a longer period. ABB AG, a leading manufacturer in power technology, is working towards designing a more reliable recloser. One objective in this design process was to optimize the size of the permanent magnet ...
Terres Réfractaires du Boulonnais (TRB), France
To contain splashes and provide protection at plants where metal is fabricated, blast furnace runners need a roof made of cast iron and concrete. Terres Réfractaires Du Boulonnais, a manufacturing company in France, has hundreds of blast furnaces with a short functional lifespan, so engineers need to design roof runners as economically as possible while maintaining overall safety. During the ...
A 100-Fold Improvement in Lithography Resolution Realized with a 150-Year-Old “Perfect Imaging” System
Juan Carlos Miñano and Dejan Grabovičkić
Cedint Polytechnic University of Madrid
The idea of "perfect imaging", that is a resolution less than the wavelength of light producing the image, was first proposed in the mid-19th century by famed Scottish physicist James Clerk Maxwell. For the next 150 years, it was widely believed that such was impossible due to the fact that light diffracts around points that are the same size or smaller in wavelength. Then, in 2009, Ulf ...